Scientific Research in Egypt .. «Structure and Quality of Outputs»

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The Egyptian Observatory for Science, Technology and Innovation (ESTIO) affiliated to the Academy of Scientific Research and Technology (ASRT) provides integrated analytical and planning indicators that would support the formulation of future visions for the national R&D system, formulating policies aimed at assessing the quality of its performance and monitoring its cognitive and developmental role. According to the Egyptian Observatory’s report for the year (2019), the outputs of scientific research are divided into three groups: scientific publication, citation to scientific periodicals and conferences, patent statistics, and international comparisons.

The Egyptian Observatory’s report for the year (2019) indicates positive aspects in the rates of development of the Egyptian scientific research system that can be built upon, and negative aspects that must be addressed and policies aimed at treating them. First: Despite the steady increase in Egyptian scientific production from (9,485) research papers in (2010) to nearly (22,144) papers in (2018), that is, an average annual growth rate of (12.6) percent, the average number of citations For a single research, it witnessed a decline from (14.6) martyrs in (2010) to (8.8) martyrs in (2015), then to (1.7) martyrs only in (2018). These indicators generally indicate the decline in the quality of Egyptian scientific publishing, and the extent to which it is used or referred to by other researchers, but when taking into account the relative weight of publication in scientific fields, Egyptian scientific research reaps rates of citation by others higher than the global average. Especially since (2017).

Second: According to the statistics of the Egyptian Observatory, (49) percent of the scientific publishing effort is carried out through cooperation with researchers or international research institutions, while the rate of (16) percent only of scientific publishing is done through cooperation between Egyptian researchers only. . This result confirms the importance of international cooperation in the fields of research, development and innovation on the one hand, and supports the internationalization strategy of scientific research adopted by UNESCO, on the other hand. Third: The share of Egyptian research published in the best (5) percent of scientific journals does not exceed (7.2) research papers on average during the year (2018), and the number of Egyptian research rises to (48) research papers in the best (25) percent of the journals. Scientific, during the same year. It is imperative that universities and research centers strive to increase their share in the best international scientific journals in terms of impact factors and citation rates.

Third: When allocating the number of Egyptian research published according to the scientific field, the natural and basic sciences come to the top of the list at a percentage of (40) percent of the total scientific publication, followed by the field of medicine and health services by (22) percent, then engineering sciences by (20) percent Percent, while the humanities and arts come at the bottom of the list with only 3.3 percent. Fourth: The average per capita number of research published annually is one of the criteria governing the productivity of the research workforce at the state level. The Egyptian Observatory reports indicate that universities are superior to research centers in this field, as the rates of scientific publication per person are estimated at the Egyptian Japanese University, the Nile National University, and the American University in Cairo (4.7, 3.3, 0.9), respectively. While the same index is estimated at the City of Scientific Research and Technological Applications in Alexandria at a rate of (0.85), and the Agricultural Research Center ranks last with a rate of (0.038) per person only. This is a fairly modest performance at the global level. Fifthly: Cairo University is the best Egyptian universities and research centers in the field of institutional productivity that depends on the volume of research outputs and the capabilities of research cadres, followed by Ain Shams University, and then the National Research Center.

With the exception of the National Research Center, the top ten places in the field of institutional research productivity are taken by public universities. Sixth: In the field of the intensity of research production or the volume of scientific publication, Egypt ranked (35) at the global level in general, surpassing knowledge-advanced countries such as Hong Kong and Finland. The research outputs in Egypt were also distinguished by their distinction in some scientific disciplines or research fields, as the research outputs in pharmaceutical sciences ranked (16) globally, followed by chemical sciences (country No. 22) at the global level. Hence, the results, as a whole, indicate a relative improvement in the outputs of the Egyptian scientific research, and the hadith has a rest.

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